What is Spread in Forex? A 101 Guide
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    what is spread in forex

    What is Spread in Forex? A 101 Guide

    In the realm of Forex trading, knowing about spread is critical as it helps you monitor the costs of your trades. The spread can be considered the transaction fee your broker charges for each trade. Understanding the spread is essential for both novice and experienced traders to optimize their trading strategies and manage costs effectively. Before working on the concept of “spread,” it is essential to focus on the ask and bid price to grasp the whole idea. Stay tuned!

    Ask Price

    The ask price represents the lowest amount sellers are willing to accept to part with a specific financial asset, essentially the price at which traders can purchase it. When traders place a market order to buy, they typically pay this ask price.

    Bid Price

    Conversely, the bid price is the highest amount buyers are willing to pay for a financial asset, making it the price at which traders can sell their assets. For traders executing a market sell order, the bid price is usually what they will receive.

    How Are the Bid and Ask Prices Determined?

    Ask and bid prices in financial markets are established through the ongoing interactions of buyers and sellers, with these prices continuously adapting to changing market conditions. When demand for an asset exceeds supply, both the bid and ask prices tend to increase, showing that buyers are prepared to spend more. On the other hand, if supply outweighs demand, the bid and ask prices typically decrease, indicating sellers might have to reduce their prices to entice buyers. Now, it is time to dive into the concept of “spread.”

    what is spread in forex? 101

    Basics of Forex Spread

    In Simple terms, the spread is the difference between the bid price, which is what buyers are willing to pay, and the ask price, which is what sellers are asking for. This price difference is crucial as it affects every trade made in the Forex market. Currencies are traded in pairs, and the spread is essentially the cost a trader needs to cover to potentially make a profit. For instance, if the bid price for the EUR/USD pair is 1.1050 and the ask price is 1.1052, the spread is 2 pips. If you buy at the ask price and sell immediately at the bid price, you would lose 2 pips. This shows how the spread can impact the profits or losses you might experience from trading.

    Types of Spreads

    Fixed Spread: This term refers to the constant difference (spread) between the buying and selling price of a financial instrument, which does not change regardless of the market conditions. Fixed spreads are particularly beneficial when the market is highly volatile—that is, when prices are making large and unpredictable movements—because they provide certainty about transaction costs. With fixed spreads, traders are able to know exactly how much the transaction will cost them before they execute a trade.

    Floating or Variable Spread: Unlike fixed spreads, floating spreads change or fluctuate. This means the difference (spread) between the buying and selling price of a financial instrument is not constant but varies depending on current market conditions. Floating spreads adjust based on how easy or difficult it is to trade an asset, influenced by the liquidity in the market and how much prices are moving. This can make trading costs unpredictable, especially during times of high volatility or low liquidity.

    Comparison: Ultimately, the choice between fixed and variable spreads will depend on the specific needs and goals of the trader, including their approach to trading, the markets they are involved in, and how they manage risks.

    Factors Influencing Spread

    Market Liquidity

    High Liquidity: When the market has high liquidity, it means there are many buyers and sellers actively trading. This abundance of trading activity makes it easier to execute trades close to the market price, which typically results in narrower (tighter) spreads. Essentially, high liquidity decreases the cost of trading because the price to buy (ask) and the price to sell (bid) are closer together.

    Market Volatility

    High Volatility: In times of high volatility, the price of securities could change drastically in a short period. During such periods, brokers may widen spreads to mitigate the risk associated with the rapid price changes. Economic news, geopolitical events, and unexpected market shocks can all increase market volatility and, consequently, spreads. This means trading becomes more expensive during these times as the gap between the buying and selling price increases.


    Brokers’ Role: Brokers are the intermediaries who facilitate trading, and they play a crucial role in setting the spreads. Their business models can significantly affect the spread size:

    • Low Spreads with Commissions: Some brokers might offer lower spreads and charge a commission on trades. This model can be attractive for high-volume traders who can save on spread costs while the fixed commissions become relatively less significant.
    • No Commission but Wider Spreads: Other brokers might not charge a commission but will offer wider spreads. This model can be simpler for casual or low-volume traders, as they don’t have to account for additional transaction fees.
    spread by brokers

    Impact of Spread on Trading

    Cost to Traders

    • Spread as a Trading Cost: The spread represents the difference between the buying price (ask) and the selling price (bid) of an asset. It is effectively the cost that traders must pay to enter a trade. This cost is realized in the price difference and must be made up through favorable moves in the market to achieve profitability.
    • Effect on Profitability: A lower spread means that the price does not need to move as much for a trader to break even or make a profit. Conversely, a higher spread increases the gap that must be closed by market movements to reach a breakeven point, thereby making it more challenging to profit.

    Trading Strategy Adaptation

    • Strategy and Spread Type: The type of spread (fixed or variable) can influence the suitability of certain trading strategies. For example, a strategy that exploits small, consistent market movements (such as scalping) might be more effective with a fixed spread, as the cost is known and stable, allowing for precise calculations of potential gains and losses.
    • Adapting to Spread Variability: With variable spreads, traders must be vigilant about market conditions that could widen the spread, such as economic announcements or shifts in market liquidity. Strategies might need more flexibility or a larger buffer for price movements to accommodate the increased costs from wider spreads during volatile periods.

    Tips for Managing Spread Costs

    Choosing the Right Broker

    • Importance of Broker Selection: The choice of broker is crucial because each broker may offer different spread types (fixed or variable) and sizes. These differences can significantly affect your trading costs and profitability. You can easily decrease your trading costs by registering with a regulated broker like ITB.
    • Review and Compare: It’s important to thoroughly review and compare the spreads offered by various brokers. Look at their typical spread sizes during both normal and volatile market conditions. This comparison should align with your trading style; for instance, a day trader or scalper might prefer a broker with consistently low spreads.
    • Fit for Trading Style: Choosing a broker whose spread offerings align with your trading strategies and market conditions you typically trade in can lead to cost efficiency and improved trading performance.

    Strategic Trading Times

    • Trading During Peak Hours: Trading during peak market hours can help reduce spread costs. Peak hours usually feature higher liquidity, especially when major market sessions overlap, such as the London and New York sessions (approximately 8:00 AM to 12:00 PM EST).
    • Benefits of High Liquidity: High liquidity means more buyers and sellers are in the market, which typically results in tighter (narrower) spreads. Tighter spreads mean lower trading costs, as the price needs to move less in your favor to reach profitability.


    The spread plays a crucial role in Forex trading and affects every transaction. By gaining a clear understanding and effectively managing spreads, traders can greatly improve their likelihood of success in the Forex market. As you refine your trading strategies, always keep in mind that the spread is a vital element to consider. Whether you opt for a broker offering fixed or variable spreads, your skill in handling these costs will substantially determine your profitability in trading.

     A forex spread is the difference between the bid price and the ask price of a currency pair. It represents the brokerage service cost and also reflects the supply and demand dynamics of the currency pair.

    Spreads are crucial because they are the primary trading cost for forex traders. A lower spread implies a lower cost of trading, which can significantly influence profitability, especially for high-frequency traders such as scalpers.

    The size of the spread can be influenced by several factors, including market liquidity, volatility, and brokerage practices. High liquidity generally leads to tighter spreads, while high volatility can cause spreads to widen.

    Fixed spreads remain constant regardless of market conditions, offering predictability in trading costs. Variable spreads fluctuate based on market dynamics such as liquidity and volatility, potentially offering lower costs during stable conditions but can widen significantly during market turbulence.